Sunday, January 12, 2020
Chapter 9 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. _e___1. Schalheim Sisters Inc. has always paid out all of its earnings as dividends; hence, the firm has no retained earnings. This same situation is expected to persist in the future. The company uses the CAPM to calculate its cost of equity, and its target capital structure consists of common stock, preferred stock, and debt. Which of the following events would REDUCE its WACC? a. The market risk premium declines. b. The flotation costs associated with issuing new common stock increase. . The company's beta increases. d. Expected inflation increases. e. The flotation costs associated with issuing preferred stock increase. __c__2. Duval Inc. uses only equity capital, and it has two equally-sized divisions. Division A's cost of capital is 10. 0%, Division B's cost is 14. 0%, and the corporate (composite) WACC is 12. 0%. All of Division A's projects are equally risky, as are all of Division B's projects. However, the projects of Division A are less risky than those of Division B. Which of the following projects should the firm accept? a. A Division B project with a 13% return. . A Division B project with a 12% return. c. A Division A project with an 11% return. d. A Division A project with a 9% return. e. A Division B project with an 11% return. 2010 Fall Chapter 10 ___b_3. You are considering two mutually exclusive, equally risky, projects. Both have IRRs that exceed the WACC. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? Assume that the projects have normal cash flows, with one outflow followed by a series of inflows. a. If the two projects' NPV profiles do not cross, then there will be a sharp conflict as to which one should be selected. . If the cost of capital is greater than the crossover rate, then the IRR and the NPV criteria will not result in a conflict between the projects. The same project will rank higher by both criteria. c. If the cost of capit al is less than the crossover rate, then the IRR and the NPV criteria will not result in a conflict between the projects. The same project will rank higher by both criteria. d. For a conflict to exist between NPV and IRR, the initial investment cost of one project must exceed the cost of the other. e.For a conflict to exist between NPV and IRR, one project must have an increasing stream of cash flows over time while the other has a decreasing stream. If both sets of cash flows are increasing or decreasing, then it would be impossible for a conflict to exist, even if one project is larger than the other. 2010 Fall, FIN 6100, Chapter 11, iClicker Questions __e__1. Which of the following is NOT a relevant cash flow and thus should not be reflected in the analysis of a capital budgeting project? a. Changes in net working capital. b. Shipping and installation costs. c. Cannibalization effects. . Opportunity costs. e. Sunk costs that have been expensed for tax purposes. __a__3. Which of t he following should be considered when a company estimates the cash flows used to analyze a proposed project? a. The new project is expected to reduce sales of one of the company's existing products by 5%. b. Since the firm's director of capital budgeting spent some of her time last year to evaluate the new project, a portion of her salary for that year should be charged to the project's initial cost. c. The company has spent and expensed $1 million on R associated with the new project. d.The company spent and expensed $10 million on a marketing study before its current analysis regarding whether to accept or reject the project. e. The firm would borrow all the money used to finance the new project, and the interest on this debt would be $1. 5 million per year. __c__4. Dalrymple Inc. is considering production of a new product. In evaluating whether to go ahead with the project, which of the following items should NOT be explicitly considered when cash flows are estimated? a. The com pany will produce the new product in a vacant building that was used to produce another product until last year.The building could be sold, leased to another company, or used in the future to produce another of the firm's products. b. The project will utilize some equipment the company currently owns but is not now using. A used equipment dealer has offered to buy the equipment. c. The company has spent and expensed for tax purposes $3 million on research related to the new detergent. These funds cannot be recovered, but the research may benefit other projects that might be proposed in the future. d. The new product will cut into sales of some of the firm's other products. . If the project is accepted, the company must invest $2 million in working capital. However, all of these funds will be recovered at the end of the project's life. __e__7. A firm is considering a new project whose risk is greater than the risk of the firm's average project, based on all methods for assessing risk . In evaluating this project, it would be reasonable for management to do which of the following? a. Increase the estimated IRR of the project to reflect its greater risk. b. Increase the estimated NPV of the project to reflect its greater risk. c.Reject the project, since its acceptance would increase the firm's risk. d. Ignore the risk differential if the project would amount to only a small fraction of the firm's total assets. e. Increase the cost of capital used to evaluate the project to reflect its higher-than-average risk. Chapter 12 iClicker Questions __b__1. Which of the following assumptions is embodied in the AFN equation? a. None of the firm's ratios will change. b. Accounts payable and accruals are tied directly to sales. c. Common stock and long-term debt are tied directly to sales. d. Fixed assets, but not urrent assets, are tied directly to sales. e. Last year's total assets were not optimal for last year's sales. __b__2. The term Ã¢â¬Å"additional funds needed (AFN) Ã¢â¬ is generally defined as follows: a. Funds that are obtained automatically from routine business transactions. b. Funds that a firm must raise externally from non-spontaneous sources, i. e. , by borrowing or by selling new stock to support operations. c. The amount of assets required per dollar of sales. d. The amount of internally generated cash in a given year minus the amount of cash needed to acquire the new assets needed to support growth. . A forecasting approach in which the forecasted percentage of sales for each balance sheet account is held constant. _b___4. A company expects sales to increase during the coming year, and it is using the AFN equation to forecast the additional capital that it must raise. Which of the following conditions would cause the AFN to increase? a. The company previously thought its fixed assets were being operated at full capacity, but now it learns that it actually has excess capacity. b. The company increases its dividend payout ratio. c. The company begins to pay employees monthly rather than weekly. . The company's profit margin increases. e. The company decides to stop taking discounts on purchased materials. Chapter 13 iClicker Questions Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. __b__1. Which of the following statements is NOT CORRECT? a. The corporate valuation model can be used both for companies that pay dividends and those that do not pay dividends. b. The corporate valuation model discounts free cash flows by the required return on equity. c. The corporate valuation model can be used to find the value of a division. . An important step in applying the corporate valuation model is forecasting the firm's pro forma financial statements. e. Free cash flows are assumed to grow at a constant rate beyond a specified date in order to find the horizon, or terminal, value. __a__2. Which of the following does NOT always increase a company's market value? a. Increasin g the expected growth rate of sales. b. Increasing the expected operating profitability (NOPAT/Sales). c. Decreasing the capital requirements (Capital/Sales). d. Decreasing the weighted average cost of capital. e.Increasing the expected rate of return on invested capital. _a___3. Which of the following is NOT normally regarded as being a barrier to hostile takeovers? a. Abnormally high executive compensation. b. Targeted share repurchases. c. Shareholder rights provisions. d. Restricted voting rights. e. Poison pills. Chapter 14 iClicker Questions Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. __d__1. Which of the following should not influence a firm's dividend policy decision? a. The firm's ability to accelerate or delay investment projects. . A strong preference by most shareholders for current cash income versus capital gains. c. Constraints imposed by the firm's bond indenture. d. The fact that much of the firm's equipment has bee n leased rather than bought and owned. e. The fact that Congress is considering changes in the tax law regarding the taxation of dividends versus capital gains. __a__2. Trenton Publishing follows a strict residual dividend policy. All else equal, which of the following factors would be most likely to lead to an increase in the firm's dividend per share? a. The firm's net income increases. b.The company increases the percentage of equity in its target capital structure. c. The number of profitable potential projects increases. d. Congress lowers the tax rate on capital gains. The remainder of the tax code is not changed. e. Earnings are unchanged, but the firm issues new shares of common stock. Chapter 15 iClicker Questions Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. _b___1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? a. A firm's business risk is determined solely by the financial characteristics of its industry. b.The factors that affect a firm's business risk are affected by industry characteristics and economic conditions. Unfortunately, these factors are generally beyond the control of the firm's management. c. One of the benefits to a firm of being at or near its target capital structure is that this eliminates any risk of bankruptcy. d. A firm's financial risk can be minimized by diversification. e. The amount of debt in its capital structure can under no circumstances affect a company's business risk. __c__2. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? a. Increasing financial leverage is one way to increase a firm's basic earning power (BEP). . If a firm lowered its fixed costs while increasing its variable costs, holding total costs at the present level of sales constant, this would decrease its operating leverage. c. The debt ratio that maximizes EPS generally exceeds the debt ratio that maximizes share price. d. If a company were to issue debt and use the money to repurchase common stock, this act ion would have no impact on its basic earning power ratio. (Assume that the repurchase has no impact on the company's operating income. ) e. If changes in the bankruptcy code made bankruptcy less costly to orporations, this would likely reduce the average corporation's debt ratio. Chapter 23 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. __e__1. Which of the following are NOT ways risk management can be used to increase the value of a firm? a. Risk management can increase debt capacity. b. Risk management can help a firm maintain its optimal capital budget. c. Risk management can reduce the expected costs of financial distress. d. Risk management can help firms minimize taxes. e. Risk management can allow managers to defer receipt of their bonuses and thus postpone tax payments.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Whether we recognize it or not, our everyday actions and ideas are directed by the Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ actions of our gender. Although the last century has been the most revolutionary in terms of gender rights, gender norms and roles still continue to push back and damage every aspect of society. Both Michael Kimmel, author of the story Ã¢â¬Å"Bros Before Hos, The Guy CodeÃ¢â¬ and Junot DÃ az, author of the essay Ã¢â¬Å"How To Date A Browngirl, Blackgirl, Whitegirl, or HalfieÃ¢â¬ illustrate that gender roles and norms are incredibly detrimental to everyone in society. As a result, both texts implicitly explore how gender roles damage everyone regardless of gender as well as every aspect of society, result in separation rather than unification, and actively change ourÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Our idea of gender norms shape not only how we act around others, but how we treat others as well. Diaz utilizes the narrator s point of view and imagery to demonstrate how gender n orms let us quickly judge others, often not for the best. He states, Ã¢â¬Å"A local girl will have hips and a nice ass but wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be quick about letting you touch her. She has to live in the same neighborhood as you do. She might just chill with you and then go home. She might kiss you and then leave. Or she might, if sheÃ¢â¬â¢s reckless, give it up, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s rare. Kissing will suffice. A white girl might give it up right then. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t stop her. SheÃ¢â¬â¢ll take her gum out of her mouth, stick it to the plastic sofa covers, and then move close to you. You have nice eyes, she might sayÃ¢â¬ (Diaz 650). Diaz describes what his character believes is the Ã¢â¬Å"normÃ¢â¬ for the girls he is attempting to have sex with. Rather than actually get to know a girl and have a relationship, the author chases after the norm of flirting around and as a result ends up objectifying the very women he is trying to impress. As demonstrated in the text, masculinity and being Ã¢â¬Å"the manÃ¢â¬ are the most important ideas in the minds of some men and as such, cause men to not only disregard their own feelings and ideas, but to also ignore and condemn the individuality of others. By putting these expectations and limitations on both women and men, we
Friday, December 27, 2019
To illustrate AbrahamÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence, he bought books to study and teach himself when he was young to become a brilliant man. In fact, Lincoln taught himself law and eventually was able to pass the bar exam to become a lawyer, he accomplished this in 1836. Abraham had the chance to do this with the assistance of John Todd Stuart, John let Abraham borrow books to study from to pass the bar exam. With this achievement, Lincoln had the chance to practice being an attorney, and led in his successful life. After some time passed, people elected him to be a part of the U.S. House of Representatives in 1846. In addition, in 1860 he became the U. S. president. Furthermore, he had the skills to be president and he knew what he wanted to modify in the United States to enhance the lives of the citizens. Not only did Abraham have the skills to be president, but he accomplished a wide range of items that affected the United States greatly. For example, being the leader the Union in the Ci vil war with the Confederacy and eventually succeeded in winning in the war. In addition, he made strides in freeing the slaves that were in slavery. He presented a speech named the Gettysburg Address, which influenced America greatly. Creating the first income tax to gather money for the Union in the civil war was another accomplishment he overcame. Lincoln produced Homestead, Morrill, and National banking acts, as well as the first railroad bill and that would change thousands of citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives.Show MoreRelatedLincoln Movie Leadership Analysis1380 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrisen just over six-hundred-thousand men. The freedoms sought out by our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s founders, now jeopardized by the secession of eleven states from the Union. The fate of The United States of America now laid upon the broad shoulders of our nations sixteenth commander-in-chief, President Abraham Lincoln. In a term marked by the burden of complete social upheaval, Abraham Lincoln was our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s foremost leader. The lawyer from Illinois navigated the only internal war in American history by embodyingRead MoreWhat Makes A Great Leader?1271 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMahatma Gandhi, Mike Krzyzewski, Pope Francis, and Abraham Lincoln. All great leaders, all posses the same characteristics. When it comes to leadership many different names can be added to the long list. If you were to take a closer look on those people you will find what makes up a great leader. Being a leader is meant for only a certain breed of people. To be a great leader a person must consist of Confidence, Intelligence, and they must be versed. Great Leaders are all alike in someway. A GreatRead MoreLeadership Brief : Abraham Lincoln996 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLeadership Brief: Abraham Lincoln One of the greatest presidential leaders goes by the name Abraham Lincoln. Throughout his lifetime, he has a wide range of different accomplishments that has affected thousands of people in various ways. Traits and qualities that Lincoln held led him to become an effective leader. In fact, Abraham knew what was best for his country that would produce the largest impact for the citizens. Literature Review To illustrate AbrahamÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence, he bought books toRead MorePresident Abraham Lincoln : Greatest President Of American History1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOctober 2014 President Abraham Lincoln: Greatest President in American History President Lincoln said the following about the South in his Inaugural Address, In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you.... You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it.(Freidel and Sidey 2006) President Abraham Lincoln is look uponRead MoreThe Suffrage Movement Of The United States970 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshistory of fighting for equality. Many organizations have developed, along with numerous campaigns and protests. The suffrage movement in the United States has dated back to the early 1840Ã¢â¬â¢s. During this time, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention. Shortly after in 1951, Susan B. Anthony joined the two previously states activists and they founded the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s National Loyal League (WNLL) in the main attempt to abolish slavery and gain full citizenship for AfricanRead MoreThe Year Long Period Of Social Unrest1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesunraveled unto the United States brought forth increasing amounts of opposing opinions. Power struggles between the Northern and Southern states gave those with strong ideas for example, John Wilkes Booth, the ideal situation to take action. The sixteenth president of the United States of America and the leader of the Union during Civil War, Abraham Lincoln, was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, an actor pursuing the revival of the confederacy and the total destruction of the Union. Abraham Lincoln wasRead MoreThe Legacy Of Abraham Lincoln1230 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesyears when Jack so his strength. Abraham Lincoln worked to earn money by doing farm work. When some people saw him reading while working they thought he was lazy but he just loved books. When Abe got older he studied law without a teacher. Abraham Lincoln became a lawyer. He was interested in politics. So people said that he should run for public office he ran for Senate, Congress then the most important one of all, President. Abraham Lincoln the 16th president. Abraham Lincoln had to do a lot whileRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Henry Iv856 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescompared to United States PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Andrew Jackson or Abraham Lincoln. King Henry holds the country together despite parts of his country forming a rebellion against him. Henry is showing the importance of a strong and powerful ruler, just like Andrew Jackson the nullification crisis of 1836, or Abraham Lincoln and the American Civil War. Andrew Jackson told his Vice President John C. Calhoun, Ã¢â¬Å"That the Union must be preserved.Ã¢â¬ Meaning that the country is more important than the individual state or personRead MoreHarriet Tubman And The Underground Railroad1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesstill traveled to the southern states many times to free other slaves. A normal fugitive slave would not put themselves in danger and risk imprisonment, but Harriet Tubman did. Although Harriet Tubman is very popular and every school teaches her life story, not many realize that she had a spy ring and had enormous influence on the Union during the Civil War. Her bravery while helping slaves escape through the Underground Railroad and her assistance in gathering intelligence from Confederate troops asRead MoreHabeas Corpus And The War On Terror1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof time before a trial. When an individual believes he has been incarcerated wrongly, they request a writ of habeas corpus for a judge to look at th e facts of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s incarceration. Habeas corpus is used today as a conviction remedy for state and federal prisoners who want to question the federal laws used and resulted in their imprisonment. It is also used to determine preliminary matters in criminal cases, such as: 1) An adequate basis for detention. 2) Removal to another federal district
Thursday, December 19, 2019
| The Role of Government in Policy making Legislative tasks are not easily formed. Within our government there are three branches. The executive branch is the branch that oversees healthcare matters with the president as the Ã¢â¬Å"CEOÃ¢â¬ . The other two branches, legislative and judicial, serve their own purpose each separate from the other two. Each branch contributes its own unique processes in establishing social policy. Alcohol Drug Abuse Council for the Concho Valley is a nonprofit organization established in 1960. Alcohol Drug Abuse Council for the Concho Valley provides assistance in many different areas. A combination of education, intervention, prevention, and treatment is in place to provide to each clientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There were many holes in the system when it came time to protect client medical information. It was found that the security requirements would apply to all medical personnel. This legislation provided a system that protects everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. HIPAA also establish protection from discrimination based on the information in the records. HIPAA serves to protect clientÃ¢â¬â¢s right by setting a standard of practice for ensuring the privacy of clientÃ¢â¬â¢s information. A client may select whom he wishes to have access to his personal information by signing a waiver of consent. HIPAA would also conduct an investigation of any claims of violation and Ã¢â¬Å"holds violators accountableÃ¢â¬ (HHS.Gov, 2008). HIPAA compliance impacts all departments that have interaction with a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s personal information like medical staff, medical records, billing, etc. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability law is inconvenient at times, but it is also necessary to protect our information from being used in a way that we do not wish. References United States Department of Health and Human Services (2010). Medical privacy - National standards to protect the privacy of personal health information. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.hhs.gov/ United States Department of Health and Human Services (2010). What does HIPAA privacy rule do? Retrieved November 1, 2010 fromShow MoreRelatedThe Role Of Government Policy3004 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesThe role of government policy is critical in addressing the needs and interests of different social groups in society. Government Policy gives society affiliated to a particular group, the necessary confidence in making judgment of their rights and freedoms. Government policy is further evaluated with respect to contemporary societal needs, in terms of its effectiveness in tackling social challenges. The Equality Act 2010 is one of the notable government policies stipulating the role of the governmentRead MoreThe Role of Government in Policy-Making781 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Role of Government in Policy-Making Holly Regan HSM/240 January 26, 2014 Terra Harris The Role of Government in Policy-Making There are three branches of government established by the U.S. Constitution which are: the legislative branch, executive branch, and the judicial branch. The purpose for these three branches of government is to establish the individual and combined powers of each branch, while reserving the rights of each individual state in the union, (Buzzle, 2014. The outlineRead MoreThe Role Of Government And Foreign Trade Policies Essay1588 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe role that Government should play in trade policy has been long debated over the years and is constantly changing to keep up with the needs and wants of a country. International trade policies are vital to any countries prosperity, and more specifically the economic development. Trade Policy is a set of rules and guidelines that determine how a country acts towards another in regards to trade and global business whether it be through free-trade or protectionism. The Governments role in trade policiesRead MoreThe Role Of Government Af fordable Housing Policy1424 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThat direct quote is from a staff report of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, Ã¢â¬Å"The Role of Government Affordable Housing Policy in Creating the Global Financial Crisis of 2008Ã¢â¬ which took place July 7th 2009. When Occupy Wall Street was happening Michael Bloomberg backed up this observation. Ã¢â¬Å"At President ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s direction, no fewer than 10 federal agencies issued a chilling ultimatum to banks and mortgage lenders to ease credit for lower-income minoritiesRead MoreWhat Role Should Religion Play in Government Policies? Essay2095 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesPolitical Science 1020E Professor Nigmendra Narain Term 1 Essay: What role should religion play in government policies? By Nivedita Sen Student Number: 250589199 Read MoreThe American Political System Is Defined As A Constitutional Democracy1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessystem is defined as a constitutional democracy. Under the Constitution, the federal government has three branches. The legislative power is vested in the Congress and made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress makes laws, controls finances of the country. The President is a head of executive branch, who offers bills to the Congress, enforces federal laws, controls foreign policy, serves as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and with the approval of the SenateRead MoreThe Impact Of Foreign Policy On International Trade Essay1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEver since the first involvement of government in international trade, many people have posed their opinion about what the role of government should be in it. Different factors are involved when it comes to deciding what this should be. It impacts a lot of pe ople, so in order to do that, trade policy must be properly defined, identify what the roles of government currently are, and their involvement in it, and then analyse what should be their role. Trade policy is how a country carries out tradeRead MoreThe Role of Government in Economy1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdebates on how far government should interfere with the economy. Government has played an impact on the economy with the purpose to maximize the well-being of society. What governments generally do is to assure the economy grows at a steady pace, increase level of employment and stabilize the price level. However, whether government should take active policies to interfere with economy or just let it grow naturally has raised widely discussion. This essay discusses the role of government by analyzing bothRead MoreThe Impact Of International Trade Policy On New Zealand And Other Countries Essay1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages International trade policy is an important part of how the word does business and there is the underlying question about how it should be done and what part the government should play not just in New Zealand but around the world. New Zealand is a country that has great trade policies, these trade policies help create a great reputation for being free flowing and business friendly. Trade policy is defined as the laws around the exchange or goods between countries. In this essay, I will begin by discussingRead MoreDoes San Francisco Have The Obligation Of Provide Citizens With Health Access?1022 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe question of whether governments have an obligation, legally or morally, to provide citizens with access to health care is one that has been debated for decades and will more than likely continue to be for years to come. Some say governments are morally obligated to provide access and others say they are bound by the right to health. Do governments, whether federal, st ate or local, have the obligation to provide citizens with health access? Do they have an active role in regulating healthy and
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about theApplied Business Research for Organizational Culture of Harvey. Answer: Introduction In existing phenomenon, tradition of a person and their opinion may influence the entire working culture of HN (Harvey Norman) organization. The business manager has designed for recruiting workforces from distinct environmental with spiritual backgrounds after executing cultural diversity within a company. In the current scenario, business managers have confronted different issues to keep the image and goodwill of a company. But, psychological belief and their culture between people of different culture differ from each other. Consequently, workforces were unable to keep organizational productivity of Harvey Norman (Perry-Smith and Shalley, 2014). In this way, this research study is emphasized to make a deep evaluation regarding the impact of the ethnic background of workforces in Harvey Norman. Background to study There are different authors who have demonstrated their opinion with respect to the impact of the ethnic background of the workforces in the organizational culture of Harvey Norman. In the view of Ford and Richardson (2013), the ethnic background concept depicts a set of individual who belongs to a distinct race, language and religions. In these kinds of circumstances, a persona may confront the complexities to make a judgment between the homogeneous ethnic groups because they come in distinct backgrounds. But, as per the view of different recognized scholars, a large number of proficient and skilled workforces get depressed for being part of the company due to implementing specific organization culture in hiring workforces from ethnic backgrounds. Hence, the impact of the ethnic background of the workforce in the organizational culture of HN has created both positive and adverse effects (Trax, et. al., 2015). Research questions What is the impact of ethnic background of the employees in organizational culture What are the major challenges that organizations have to face for hiring employees from different religion and cultural backgrounds What should be the major recommendations of maintaining effective organizational culture at the workplace by hiring people of various cultural backgrounds Project design (method) Introduction This part of the project methodology can aid the researcher to choose the suitable tool to attain the research aim and objectives. This part incorporates different elements like research approaches, philosophies, project design, sampling and data gathering techniques. It will enable the researcher to obtain feasible outcome regarding research matter (Farkas, 2017). Philosophy for research Interpretivism research philosophy will be used by a researcher to enhance the research reliability. The main motive behind this selection is subjective nature of research issue. This research philosophy is also linked with idealism circumstances which help a researcher to get the valid and reliable information (Ahern, et. al., 2015). Approaches for research The inductive approach will be used by a researcher to gather the information regarding research issue. Along with this, this approach will be used to generate the theories rather than developing a hypothesis. By implementing this approach, a researcher will able to gather the beliefs and ideas with respondents with regards to research issue (Luthans, et. al., 2015). Strategy for research The research strategy could be beneficial to attain the research goal and objective in predetermined time duration and cost. For this research, a researcher will use literature review and survey through a questionnaire to complete the research in a reliable way. Through conducting a survey through a questionnaire, a researcher would be enabled to pool the views and opinion with respect to the impact of the ethical background of employees in the organizational culture of Harvey Norman. For collecting the data through literature review, a researcher will use different sources to pooling the information like academic publication, textbook, offline resources, magazines, and government and company report (Huang, and Rundle-Thiele, 2014). These sources will allow a researcher to enhance the reliability and validity regarding research result. Designing of project A research will also implement mix project design. Because, it contains the features of both quantitative and qualitative project design hence it may effective to develop trustworthy with applicable research outcome. In such way, qualitative research design will build the theoretical understanding regarding the issue of research along with quantitative researcher will be used by a researcher to exhibit the numerical facts and figures by statistical data (Stone, and Deadrick, 2015). Data gathering technique A researcher will gather the facts and figures to get the reliable research outcome. The researcher will implement both primary and secondary data collection method to increase the reliability of research. In this way, primary data will be pooled by the researcher to gather new information via observation, experiment and survey through a questionnaire. At the same time, a researcher will gather the secondary facts and figures via different sources like a textbook, journal article, and online and offline publications (Matsumoto and Juang, 2016). Procedure of Sampling The researcher will use probability sampling techniques for choosing respondents in an unsystematic manner. In such way, the researcher will implement random sampling technique to provide equivalent chances to participants in the survey through a questionnaire. This sampling procedure will be effective to avoid the biases from research. Along with this, the researcher will select 40 employees of Harvey Norman from different geographical areas to get depth information (Myers, 2015). These methods will allow a researcher to assess the impact of the ethical background of employees in the organizational culture of Harvey Norman. Data analysis method For this research, statistical data analysis will be implemented by a researcher to analyze pooled figures as well as understand it in a comprehensible way. For statistical data analysis, a researcher will exercise Ms-excel to represent the facts and figures via bar diagram, pie chart and column diagram. As a result, it would facilitate the readers to comprehend the facts and figures regarding the research issue (Delgado, et. al., 2013). Project implications This research could be beneficial for readers to create the intensely comprehension regarding the impact of the ethical background of employees in the organizational culture of HN. This research proposal will also be beneficial for current and new companies because it develops the understanding with respect to the impact of the ethnic background of the workforces in organizational culture. This will be effective for existing organization to comprehend the major challenges that organizations confront during hiring employees from distinct religious with cultural backgrounds. It will also aid the representative and researcher to understand the ways for maintaining the valuable organizational culture at the workplace by recruiting people from various cultural backgrounds (Kirkman, et. al., 2013). Ethical approval A research will use data safety and security act 1988 by which they will not share the confidential information with another person before and after completion of the project. A research will also not compel to respondents to give confidential information and cannot demonstrate it by manipulation. Along with this, a researcher will also update to employees regarding the research purpose earlier conducting the survey through a questionnaire. As a result, a researcher would be competent to engage the respondents in the survey through a questionnaire (Delgado, et. al., 2013). Timeline Table 1: Research schedule for completing project Activities that will be conducted by researcher Number of weeks to conduct these activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Choose feasible research issue Building purpose and objective for project Pooling facts and figures through both primary and secondary sources Questionnaire design Choosing appropriate sample from targeted population via effective sampling technique Analysis of data and findings Writing of report with final draft making Report submission From the above time schedule, it could be stated that obtaining survey via questionnaire and pooling the data via secondary data will take maximum time rather than other performing activities. Own Learning This research proposal has gained my research skill by developing the understanding of the impact of the ethical background of employees in the organizational culture of HN. This research proposal was interesting for me because it has developed my knowledge about major challenges that organizations may confront during hiring employees from different religious with cultural backgrounds. As a result, I am able to consider these factors to make strategy and also enable me to become a good HR manager in future. This research was also beneficial for me to gain my experience regarding different ways for maintaining the good organizational culture at the workplace by recruiting people from distinct cultural backgrounds. However, I have confronted struggle to gather the primary and secondary data because some of the participants were not agreed to get the responses about research issue due to time-consuming. Along with this, I have faced difficulty to gather the secondary data because some o f the journal articles were too expensive but I have to purchase due to getting authentic information. References Ahern, K. R., Daminelli, D., Fracassi, C. (2015). Lost in translation? The effect of cultural values on mergers around the world.Journal of Financial Economics,117(1), 165-189. Delgado, D. A., Ness, S., Ferguson, K., Engstrom, P. L., Gannon, T. M., Gillett, C. (2013). Cultural competence training for clinical staff: Measuring the effect of a one-hour class on cultural competence.Journal of Transcultural Nursing,24(2), 204-213. Farkas, G. (2017).Human capital or cultural capital?: Ethnicity and poverty groups in an urban school district. UK: Routledge. Ford, R. C., Richardson, W. D. (2013). Ethical decision making: A review of the empirical literature. InCitation classics from the Journal of Business Ethics(pp. 19-44). UK: Springer Netherlands. Huang, Y. T., Rundle-Thiele, S. (2014). The moderating effect of cultural congruence on the internal marketing practice and employee satisfaction relationship: An empirical examination of Australian and Taiwanese born tourism employees.Tourism Management,42, 196-206. Kirkman, B. L., Cordery, J. L., Mathieu, J., Rosen, B., Kukenberger, M. (2013). Global organizational communities of practice: The effects of nationality diversity, psychological safety, and media richness on community performance.Human Relations,66(3), 333-362. Luthans, F., Luthans, B. C., Luthans, K. W. (2015).Organizational behavior: An evidence-based approach. UK: IAP. Matsumoto, D., Juang, L. (2016).Culture and psychology. UK: Nelson Education. Myers, M. B. (2015). Ethnocentrism: a literature overview and directions for future research. InProceedings of the 1995 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference(pp. 202-207). UK: Springer, Cham. Perry-Smith, J. E., Shalley, C. E. (2014). A social composition view of team creativity: The role of member nationality-heterogeneous ties outside of the team.Organization Science,25(5), 1434-1452. Stone, D. L., Deadrick, D. L. (2015). Challenges and opportunities affecting the future of human resource management.Human Resource Management Review,25(2), 139-145. Trax, M., Brunow, S., Suedekum, J. (2015). Cultural diversity and plant-level productivity.Regional Science and Urban Economics,53, 85-96.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Planet X Planet X Is Pluto really a planet? Researchers have been trying to determine whether Pluto is really big enough to be a planet. Over the last few years, the gathered information on Pluto and the discovery of an increasing number of other objects in the outer solar system have been discussed within a group of astronomers (called minor-planets). The planet Pluto is not given the respect of other planets and some have designation to be changed to ?minor planet'. Astronomer Brian Marsden of Harvard Smithsonian Center said if Pluto were discovered seventy years ago, it would be considered a minor planet number. A minor planet is a term used to describe asteroids and most astronomers agree that Pluto is no asteroid. Marsden said it's not a demotion for Pluto to be referred to as the 10,000th minor planet, it is an honor. Some astronomers do not agree with the Brian Marsden theory. Pluto deserves to be considered more than just a minor planet. Most astronomers would probably consider stripping Pluto of is status akin to stripping [the U.S. state of] Connecticut or Vermont of statehood because Texas and Alaska later joined. It was estimated that Pluto contained mass of eleven Earth but dropped rapidly over time. This is what is giving the astronomers a second opinion about being a planet. Pluto is about 1,500 miles in diameter, larger than the largest asteroid. It is known to have density of two grams per cubic centimeter, so is estimated to be sixty percent rock and forty percent ices of frozen nitrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and water. Pluto is tilted 122.5 degrees on its axis. Because of the shape of Pluto's orbit, it actually slips inside of Neptune's orbit once every 248 Earth years for a period of twenty years. Pluto, the planet farthest from the sun, is smaller than Earth's moon. And while other ?major planets' have roughly circular orbits, Pluto carves out a sweeping ellipse that frequently takes it closer than Neptune to the sun. Pluto has one natural satellite, Charon, which is half the size of Pluto. Because Pluto and Charon are comparable is size, many scientists consider them to be a double plant, but many scientists don't consider Pluto a planet at all. Studies conducted using a spectroscope have detected methane frost on Pluto and water frost on Cha ron. Like Triton, Neptune's satellite, Pluto has an atmosphere of nitrogen and methane. Pluto's atmosphere appears to extend out to include Charon, which suggests that they may share an atmosphere. Through the Hubble Space Telescope, Charon appears to be bluer in color than Pluto. During the time in its orbit when Pluto is farthest from the Sun, its atmosphere condenses and falls to the surface as frost. Nicholson calls the Pluto debate a ?'Tempest in a teapot' with little effect on the course of solar-system research?. Nicholson also states no matter what we call it, people are not going to stop thinking about Pluto as a member of the Kuiper Belt. All the current discussions about the origin of Pluto starts premise that Pluto is a very big Kuiper Belt object. Transition Neptunian Objects is a new class A'Hearn wants to create for ice balls that orbit beyond Neptune and Pluto would be Transition Neptunian Object number 1. Does this mean Pluto has been demoted? The answer is no. Pluto will have dual classification as a planet and a Transition Neptunian Object, at least for the time being. Astronomy
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Hobbes A Social Covenant Theorist Hobbes -- a Social Covenant Theorist Throughout the assigned portions of the Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes proves to be a social contract theorist, however inconsistently. Through his explanation of humanity extracting itself out of the state of Nature, by developing rules pertaining to property and contract, by means of the creation of a Sovereign, or Common Wealth, he clearly elucidates the basic concepts of social contract theory. In order to fully grasp Hobbes theory of Social Contract, one must first become familiar with his basic premises of The State of Nature. In this state each individual is inherently in a perpetual state of war, due to several given reasons. Hobbes assumes that Nature hath made menequall. (Hobbes 183) Also, that in this state of war all men exemplify purely egoistic behavior, striving to do whatever possible to maximize their own utility, even if it requires murdering another. In addition to these conditions, in the state of nature, there exists a state of natural scarcity, in which, a finite amount of goods, possessions, property, cattell, wives, whatever, exist to satisfy mans infinite wants. And therefore if any two men desire the same thingthey become enemies andendeavour to destroy or subdue one an other. (Hobbes 184) Hence, creating a constant state of war. At no time, in this natural state, is injustice even possible. As Hobbes so concisely states, Where there is no common Power, there is no Law: where no Law, no Injustice. (Hobbes 188) Essentially, since every man is entitled to everything, he is also at liberty to exert any means possible -- including violence -- in order to satisfy all of his wants and needs. In this State of War, each individual is at the mercy of any of the whims of any invader, neighbor, child, or any other entity lest they fail to protect themselves. Expressed by Hobbes, And therefore, as long as this naturall Right of everyman to every thing endureth there can be no security to any man, of living out the time, which Nature ordinarily alloweth men to live. (Hobbes 190) In addition to this most inconvenient physical state of nature, Hobbes elaborates upon the mutuall transferring of right. (Hobbes 192) It is necessary for men to enter into contracts, a mutual agreement made by individuals in order to exchange the right to the thing. (Hobbes 193) Things can range from deciding on peace between two quarreling parties, with demands and peaceful sacrifices from both ends, to an agreement between two merchants for goods and services. At times it is necessary for one of the Contractors to, deliver the Thing contracted for on his part, and leave the other to perform his part at some determinate time after. (Hobbes 193) Thusly, forming this covenant, which promises that a good or service of some sort will be awarded to one of the contractors at a future time. However, in the state of nature, there exists absolutely no assurance that ones contracts or covenants will be upheld. Hobbes argues that it is in everymans best interest to not fulfill his end of the bargain, as it were. Therefore, due to his feare of not performance on either part, men are driven, by their own suspicions to create a coercive power, or sovereign, to regulate their contractual agreements and covenants. Just as outlined in Social Contract theory, those in the state of nature, found it in their best interests to enter into a social contract, thereby abandoning some of their freedoms, in order to have the reigning entity of a Sovereign, or Commonwealth. This contract must be entered into by all men, with all men, who should perhaps say to each other, as Hobbes suggests, I authorise and give up my Right of Governing my selfe, to this Man, or to this Assembly of men, on this condition, that thou give up thy Right to him, and Authorise all his Actions in like manner. (Hobbes, 227) This governing unit was a single individual or group of individuals, established to preside over all contracts, or covenants made. In this capacity, Hobbes, is said to be a Social Contract theorist, in that men must enter into this agreement, to